The doctoral research examines the translation of memory of al-Anfāl and its inexorable bond with justice in the post-Baʿth Kurdistan Region of Iraq. As the first anthropological study it explores the ways in which survivors and relatives of the victims, the Kurdistan Regional Government, civil and political activists are engaged in the processes of translation that alter memory and brings it closer to the demand for justice. It discusses how audio/visual, mournful music and songs, theatrical staging, and verbal repetition (i.e. annual remembrance days) multiply, make visible, and communicable memory of al-Anfāl. In addition, it focuses on how these acts of translation produce or write al-Anfāl as “infinitely public,” and marginalize survivors, in particular, women, transforming them into clients, subjected to economic policy of politics of membership of political parties in the region.

Thus, the study is concerned with the diverse ways in which al-Anfāl/genocide is translated. It raises questions such as: Whose genocide is al-Anfāl? In what ways is al-Anfāl enunciated and remembered? What and who is remembered? How is the memory of al-Anfāl translated? Who is allowed to speak about it? To what end and to whom do they speak? Finally, the research examines how memory of al-Anfāl is displaced and exhausted in the region, and yet how it continues to harbor responsibility and remains the only force in the pursuit of justice.